Archaeologists have found beads from Lothal in lands as far as Mesopotamia and Egypt, another proof that Lothal was a thriving trade center. Explore lost civilizations, tour ancient places and latest archaeological finding. By Earth is Mysterious. It had an immaculate network of underground drains, silting chambers and cesspools, and inspection chambers for solid waste. A unique seal found here is from Bahrain—circular, with motif of a dragon flanked by jumping gazelles. [7], The meaning of Lothal (a combination of Loth and (s) thal) in Gujarati to be "the mound of the dead" is not unusual, as the name of the city of Mohenjo-daro in Sindhi means the same. The ancient city of on the lower Yangtze delta, with its sophisticated system of waterways, is astonishing archaeologists and rewriting the history books. Due to the fragile nature of unbaked bricks and frequent floods, the superstructures of all buildings have receded. It was discovered in 1954 and was the southernmost cities of the very ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Its constant threats - tropical storms and floods - caused immense destruction, which destabilised the culture and ultimately caused its end. Municipal administration was strict – the width of most streets remained the same over a long time, and no encroached structures were built. [25], The people of Lothal worshipped a fire god, speculated to be the horned deity depicted on seals, which is also evidenced by the presence of private and public fire-altars where religious ceremonies were apparently conducted. In spite of many attempts, the 'script' has not yet been deciphered. The Lothal site has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its application is pending on the tentative list of UNESCO. [35], Lothal offers two new types of potter work, a convex bowl with or without stud handle, and a small jar with flaring rim, both in the micaceous Red Ware period, not found in contemporary Indus cultures. (Now it is 3.35 metres or 11.0 feet.) At Lothal, a brick structure has been identified as a dockyard meant for berthing ships and handling cargo. The entire complex contains about 15 sikhara temples and a rectangular water tank. Principal exports were beads, ivory and shells. [citation needed] Trade volumes reduced greatly, though not catastrophically, and resources were available in lesser quantities. The methods of Lothal bead-makers were so advanced that no improvements have been noted over 4,000 years—modern makers in the Khambhat area follow the same technique. Though Indus seals went out of use, the system of weights with an 8.573 gram (0.3024 oz avoirdupois. Between 1954 and 1958, more than 50 sites were excavated in the Kutch (notably Dholavira), and Saurashtra peninsulas, extending the limits of Harappan civilisation by 500 kilometres (310 miles) to the river Kim, where the Bhagatrav site accesses the valley of the rivers Narmada and Tapti. While the trade and resources of the city were almost entirely gone, the people retained several Harappan ways in writing, pottery, and utensils. A ring of thin copper wire turned into double spirals resembles the gold-wire rings used by modern Hindus for weddings. Seal-cutters preferred short-horned bulls, mountain goats, tigers and composite animals like the elephant-bull for engravings. (Fig 3.2) This suggests that Lothal was an important port and trading centre of the Harappan people. Wooden screens inserted in grooves in the side drain walls held back solid waste. [47] The baths were primarily located in the acropolis—mostly two-roomed houses with open courtyards. It also produced large quantities of bronze celts, fish-hooks, chisels, spears and ornaments. [49] A large mud-brick building faces the factory, and its significance is noted by its plan. [4] Brief History: It is said that Lothal is a combination of two words; Loth and thal, which in Gujarati means ‘the mound of the dead.’ The city was inhabited during 3700 BCE and was a thriving trading port. It lasted for about 1600 years and collapsed mysteriously. As one enters the excavated area, one can witness the tank which several archaeologists have opined as the world’s first dry dockyard. At the southern end of this civilization in the Gulf of Khambat, in the village called Lothal lies a dockyard that was used to trade through the sea routes with other civilizations. Lothal, which means 'The City of Dead', is an old city dating back to the 4,400-year-old Harappan civilization and one of the few known ports on an ocean. Answer : (d) Question 2: Which one among the following cities was known for water management? It may be recalled that although the 1953 excavations at Rangpur, a site 32 miles south-west of Lothal had confirmed that the Harappa Civilization had … It exhibits some fine pieces of ceramics, metalwork and beads that were once created here. One of the largest civilization on account of population. [31], Lothal was one of the most important centres of production for shell-working, owing to the abundance of chank shell of high quality found in the Gulf of Kutch and near the Kathiawar coast. This is the first Indus Valley Civilization site that I visited after reading so much about them. The flood-damaged peripheral wall of mud-bricks is visible near the warehouse area. [22] Lothal contributes one of three measurement scales that are integrated and linear (others found in Harappa and Mohenjodaro). A wooden screen at the end of the drains held back solid wastes and liquid entered a cess pool made from radial bricks. Thus the cause for the abandonment of the city may have been changes in the climate as well as natural disasters, as suggested by environmental magnetic records. Throughout their time, the city had to brace itself through multiple floods and storms. Till 1920, the relics of the civilization were found only in the Indus valley region; therefore, it was known as the Indus civilization. Large ships were moored away. Lothal, one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat, in the western part of India is just one such example. Harappa was a well organized urban civilization … At the height of its habitation, it covered a wider area since remains have been found 300 metres (980 feet) south of the mound. Double-eye beads of agate and collared or gold-capped beads of jasper and carnelian beads are among those attributed as uniquely from Lothal. The people of Lothal made significant and often unique contributions to human civilization in the Indus era, in the fields of city planning, art, architecture, science, engineering and religion. An artistic impression of how Lothal must have looked when it was a trading town. Lothal was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. About Lothal. The main sewer, 1.5 m deep and 91 cm across, connected north-south and east-west ones and was constructed from smoothened bricks. However, this interpretation has been challenged by other archaeologists, who argue that Lothal was a comparatively small town, and that the "dock" was actually an irrigation tank. On a miniature jar, the story of the thirsty crow and deer is depicted – of how the deer could not drink from the narrow-mouth of the jar, while the crow succeeded by dropping stones in the jar. The main inlet is 12.8 metres (42 feet) wide, and another is provided on the opposite side. On average, the main sewer is 20–46 cm (7.9–18.1 in) in depth, with outer dimensions of 86 × 68 × 33 cm (34 × 27 × 13 in). However, with a poorly organised government, and no outside agency or central government, the public works could not be properly repaired or maintained. Lothal was a major port of trade. It is located at the site of the ancient city of Lothal situated about 85 kilometers south of Ahmedabad, in the state of Gujarat, in India. However, it is believed that a sea goddess, perhaps cognate with the general Indus-era Mother Goddess, was worshipped. Lothal is famous for the discovery of several ruins of Indus Valley Civilization May 19, 2017 Lothal is located between the Sabarmati river and its tributary Bhogavo, in the Saurasthra region. Post-cremation burials have been noted in other Indus sites like Harappa, Mehi and Damb-Bhuti. The few people who returned to Lothal could not reconstruct and repair their city, but surprisingly continued to stay and preserved religious traditions, living in poorly built houses and reed huts. About this time ASI archaeologists record a mass movement of refugees from Punjab and Sindh into Saurashtra and to the valley of Sarasvati (1900–1700 BCE). According to the ASI, Lothal had the world's earliest known dock, which connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. Their work in metallurgy, seals, beads and jewellerywas the basis of their prosperity. [24], For their renowned draining system, Lothal engineers provided corbelled roofs, and an apron of kiln-fired bricks over the brick face of the platform where the sewerage entered the cesspool. Harappa is known to be a 4700 years old city in the subcontinent which was discovered around the time 1920. [12] Lothal planners engaged themselves to protect the area from consistent floods. Lothal's people were responsible for the earliest-known portrayals of realism in art and sculpture, telling some of the most well-known fables of today. This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary. [30] Gamesmen, beads, unguent vessels, chank shells, ladles and inlays were made for export and local consumption. Lethal's dock-the world's earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.2 1. A coastal route may have existed linking sites such as Lothal and Dholavira to Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast.[50]. [42] Another assessment is that the basin could have served as an irrigation tank, for the estimated original dimensions of the "dock" are not large enough, by modern standards, to house ships and conduct much traffic. [16] Commerce and administrative duties were performed according to standards laid out. The lower town was subdivided into two sectors. [citation needed], Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years.[5]. [39] Animal figures with wheels and a movable head may have been utilised as toys. The 4,500-year-old city of Lothal was discovered in 1954. Lothal, Gujarat – Ruins & Remains Ruins of Indus Valley Civilization Lothal was known far and wide for its bead-making industry. Archaeologists have discovered gold pendants, charred ashes of terra-cotta cakes and pottery, bovine remains, beads and other signs that may indicate the practice of the Gavamayana sacrifice, associated with the ancient Vedic religion. Movements and emotions are suggested by the positioning of limbs and facial features—in a 15 cm × 5 cm (5.9 in × 2.0 in) jar without overcrowding.[37]. "Lothal was discovered as a result of a systematic survey of Gujarat undertaken by the author in the year 1954 as part of the programme for locating Harappan settlements within the present-day borders of India. The excavation started from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to unearth the ancient city. It is also considered that given the small number of graves discovered—only 17 in an estimated population of 15,000—the citizens of Lothal also practised cremation of the dead. Maybe other towns around Lothal and left the place to probably go to Sindh – a little far away across the Arabian sea. The people of Lothal made significant and often unique contributions to human civilisation in the Indus era, in the fields of city planning, art, architecture, science, engineering, pottery, and religion. The scale is 6 millimetres (0.2 inches) thick, 15 mm (0.59 in) broad and the available length is 128 mm (5.0 in), but only 27 graduations are visible over 46 mm (1.8 in), the distance between graduation lines being 1.70 mm (0.067 in) (the small size indicates use for fine purposes). Cities began to emerge about the same time in various places around the world. [9] The remnants of raw materials such as reed, cow dung, sawdust, and agate are found, giving archaeologists hints of how the kiln was operated. [citation needed] An indigenous micaceous Red Ware culture also existed, which is believed to be[who?] On one large vessel, the artist depicts birds with fish in their beaks, resting in a tree, while a fox-like animal stands below. Dating back to the second millennium b.c., Lothal was an important port on the Indian subcontinent during the Harappan era. John Marshal had a different perspective. Topographical analysis also shows signs that at about the time of its demise, the region suffered from aridity or weakened monsoon rainfall. The meaning of the name ‘Lothal’ means ‘Mound of the Dead’ in local Gujarati language. Lothal (IPA: [loˑt̪ʰəl]) is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 3700 BCE. Shaped like a giant chariot, the temple is known for the exquisite stone carvings that cover the entire structure. a) Saraswati. Lothal brick-makers used a logical approach in manufacture of bricks, designed with care in regards to thickness of structures. What role did the city of Lothal play in the Harappan civilization? [14] But thanks to the loam deposited by persistent floods, the dock walls were preserved beyond the great deluge (c. 1900 BCE). [42] Central to the city's economy, the warehouse was originally built on sixty-four cubical blocks, 3.6 metres (12 feet) square, with 1.2-metre (3.9-foot) passages, and based on a 3.5-metre-high (11.5 ft) mud-brick podium. In this post we discuss the Origin of Lothal Civilization and the living style of Lothal people. Lothal is believed to be at least 5,000 years old and was the only port-town of the Indus Valley Civilization. The extent of drains provided archaeologists with many clues regarding the layout of streets, organisation of housing and baths. Why is lothal called the manchester of indus valley civilisation. Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Brick-paved passages between blocks served as vents, and a direct ramp led to the dock to facilitate loading. According to an impression at the museum, ships could sluice into the northern end of the dock by an inlet channel connected to the estuary of River Sabarmati during high tide and the lock gates were closed so the water level would rise sufficiently for them to float. It’s unclear what happened to the Indus people. [2] Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments. Two styles of pottery were also discovered at Lothal. An ivory seal, and sawn pieces for boxes, combs, rods, inlays and ear-studs were found during excavations. It was very famous for micro-cylindrical beads of steatite (chlorite). Upstream elements of this river provided a suitable source of freshwater for the inhabitants. Bhagatrav supplied semi-precious stones while chank shell came from Dholavira and Bet Dwarka. Provision was made for the escape of excess water through the outlet channel, 96.5 metres (317 feet) wide and 1.7 metres (5.6 feet) high in the southern arm. The Harappan civilization first became known in the 1920s. It was done by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Key exhibits include a gold necklace, a copper figure, micro-beads, steatite and terracotta seals with motifs and inscriptions, metal fish hooks, ornaments like bangles, a perforated jar, a terra cotta bull, a horse, the model of a boat, objects used for games and a shell used as a compass for navigation. It also showcases the uniformity of weights and measures used during the Harappan civilisation — bricks in perfect ratio while weights were based on units of 0.05, 0.1, 1.2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500, with each unit weighing around 28 g, similar to the English ounce or Greek uncia. The ruler's residence is 43.92 square metres (1.696×10−5 square miles) in area with a 1.8-square-meter-bath (19 sq ft) equipped with an outlet and inlet. The town was divided into blocks of 1–2-metre-high (3–6 ft) platforms of sun-dried bricks, each serving 20–30 houses of thick mud and brick walls. [citation needed] Their work in metallurgy, seals, beads and jewellery was the basis of their prosperity. The great Indus Valley Civilization developed about 5200 years ago and slowly began to decline around 3800 years ago. Situated at a distance of 80 kms from Ahmedabad, Lothal city is one of the well known cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. The hall has a large doorway and a raised floor in the southern corner of the building. C Mohenjodaro and Harappa. 16, 4th Floor, Sector-11, Gandhinagar - 382 011. A unique aspect of planning was underground sanitary drainage. After the ships had loaded or unloaded cargo, the gates were opened for them to return to the sea. March 3, 2020. A Lothal and Ropar. A thick ring-like shell object found with four slits each in two margins served as a compass to measure angles on plane surfaces such as housing alignments, roads or land surveys. When the river changed its course in 2000 BCE, a smaller inlet, 7 metres (23 feet) wide was made in the longer arm, connected to the river by a 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) channel. From 2600 to 1900 BC, the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilisation was at the zenith of its maturity as a sophisticated and technologically advanced urban cultural centre. Quantitative descriptions, seals of rulers and owners were stamped on goods. The heavily damaged warehouse was never repaired properly, and stocks were stored in wooden canopies, exposed to floods and fire. An intensive trade network gave the inhabitants great prosperity. [14] One of the evidence of trade in Lothal is the discovery of typical Persian gulf seals, a circular button seal[17], While the wider debate over the end of Indus civilisation continues, archaeological evidence gathered by the ASI appears to point to natural catastrophes, specifically floods and storms as the source of Lothal's downfall. 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Lothal, which means 'The City of Dead', is an ancient city dating back to the 5000-year-old Harappan civilization and one of the few known ports on an ocean. The lower town was also periodically enlarged during Lothal's years of prosperity. The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south length of average 215 metres (705 feet), and east-west width of 35 metres (115 feet). [citation needed] The bead factory had ten living rooms and a large workplace courtyard. A complete set of terra-cotta gamesmen, has been found in Lothal—animal figures, pyramids with ivory handles and castle-like objects (similar to the chess set of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt). [citation needed] While the consensus view amongst archaeologists identifies this structure as a "dockyard," it has also been suggested that owing to small dimensions, this basin may have been an irrigation tank and canal. Rice cultivation was found in Lothal & Rangapur. grains. In images of men and women, muscular and physical features are sharp, prominently marked. Soon after the discovery of cities like Lothal, Dholavira, Mohenjodaro, and Kalibangan have also been discovered and were come to be known as the Harappan cities or also the advent of Harappan Civilization. That they were the Harappan peoples is evidenced by the analyses of their remains in the cemetery. In the Lower Town, you can also see a bead-making furnace enclosed in a steel mesh. [citation needed] This is evidenced in adjacent cities of Rangpur, Rojdi, Rupar and Harappa in Punjab, Mohenjo-daro and Chanhudaro in Sindh. Lothal was originally the site for the lustrous Red Ware culture, associated with the post-Rigvedic Vedic civilization, and named for its mica-related pottery. Officials blame the salinity on capillary action and point out that cracks are emerging and foundations weakening even as restoration work slowly progresses. [citation needed] Increased salinity of soil made the land inhospitable to life, including crops. The network stretched across the frontiers to Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer. The flood affected the entire region of Saurashtra, Sindh and south Gujarat, and affected the upper reaches of the Indus and Sutlej, where scores of villages and townships were washed away. But most archaeologists agree that it is fair to claim Uruk as one of the world’s first cities. b) Indus. Despite elaborate precautions, the major floods that brought the city's decline destroyed all but twelve blocks, which became the makeshift storehouse. The remains of the civilization were first noticed at Harappa, therefore it is also known as the Harappan civilization. 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Away across the frontiers to Egypt, Bahrain and Sumer of antiquities in India are displayed 37! 16 ] Commerce and administrative duties were performed according to standards laid out held... Were polished to prevent the clogging of city drains probable sources in the archaeology of modern India could sail to... The civilizations established during the Harappan civilization first became known in the acropolis—mostly two-roomed houses with open courtyards Indian.... Cleaning device, with motif of a dragon flanked by shops of rich and ordinary merchants and craftsmen human. Are Providing Notes on “ Lothal civilization and the stokehold ) east-to-west solid waste a Hunchbacked bull was.. Of this section on a 3.5 m high plinth and ear-studs were found during.... Disciplined people archaeologists have found beads from Lothal has the smallest-known decimal divisions in Indus civilisation smoothened.!