3. To examine variables of educators` attitudes toward Inclusion. They also believe that well controlled contact between children from different ethnic groups in school can have positive effects on social interactions among groups. Furthermore, the produced outcomes compared to pre-established observable goals set in the Education Strategic Plan 2003–2015 were recorded to evaluate the progress in Ghana’s special and inclusive education. Agbenyega & Deku (2011) saw teachers` unwillingness to include students with disabilities as a factor of insufficient knowledge of inclusion and the inability to manage diverse needs, as well as the lack of ability to adapt curriculum and instructional strategies to facilitate learning outcomes (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1996). Two set of questions, one to the teachers and one to the students were used to collect data. Exceptional Children, 63 (3), 405-418. The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In UNESCO, (1994) Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmes. Stanovich, P. J. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. Anthony (2011), allude to the idea that positive attitudes about the inclusion of students with disabilities into mainstream classes are often dependent on the provision of adequate support services. 2000), and that administrators at their schools lack the understanding to effectively implement inclusive practices (Cook, et al. A cultural perspective and the second wave of educational reform. Canadian teachers’ and principals’ beliefs about inclusive education as predictors of effective teaching in heterogeneous classrooms. They are often excluded from education and society due to physical, ideological, systemic, or communication barriers.LIGHT FOR THE WORLD strives for a school system that leaves no-one behind. Finally, the study is also hoped to contribute to national and international debates on Inclusive Education growing global literature on educators’ attitudes toward inclusive education and the specific factors / educator variables that impact on these attitudes and the implementation of effective inclusive practices. The Education … (1998). These findings are consistent with research studies which point to a generally positive view held by teachers in mainstream settings regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. UNESCO. Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., Cook, L., & Landrum, T. J. Vaughn, S., Hogan, A., Kouzekanani, K., & Shapiro, S. (1990). (2000), Kuyini & Desai (2009), Agbenyega, & Deku, (2011) that experience working with disabled students and small class-sizes had positive effects on attitudes toward inclusion. Menu Skip to content. Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana Florence Akua Mensah 1* Jeremiah Badu-Shayar 2 1.Department of Special Education, University of Education, PO box 25, WinnebaCentral Region- Ghana 2.Division of Special Education, Ghana Education Service, Accra –Ghana Abstract It includes information on educational and rehabilitation services, special schools and integrated education. Finally, a social atmosphere or norms that encourage interpersonal and intergroup contact can facilitate rapprochement and greater understanding between members of different ethnic groups; (3) fostering interactions (Pettigrew, 2011). Home; About. A teacher added; “we had only a semester (one course) training in special education the fully trained special needs education teachers are sent to special schools. UNESCO, 2011. The above utterances by a teacher interviewed is a concern showing lack of consultation with teachers, thus supporting previous studies such as (Cook, et al. Applying a descriptive design based on measurable pre-established indicators, drawn from Anastasiou and Keller’s (2011) typological framework, the authors provide a systematic description of the 2008 status of special and inclusive … Emerging themes from interviews was coded and analysed with the respondents. Wittig, M. A. The general lack of knowledge of inclusion on the part of school authorities (principals) and the lack of regular in-service training sessions for teachers (Agbenyega & Deku, 2011; Ofori-Addo, et al., 1999) put a question mark on the level of educators’ knowledge of the inclusion education initiative. The Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Intergroup Contact underpin this study. These conditions are met, to a large extent, through structured intergroup encounters that emphasize commonalities between the groups (Cook, 1978) or through contact that occurs between friends (Pettigrew,1998; Turner, Hewstone, & Voci, 2007). Comparing the effects of educational placement on the social relationships of intermediate school students with severe disabilities. Social outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Students with other disabilities other than mental and intellectual such as severe physical problems without disabled friendly structures and other facilities appear to force teachers to view the inclusion of such students with some apprehension. Allport, G.W. The main challenges for special and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan African countries are discussed. Measuring school environment and participation to support inclusive education The right to equal and quality education, initially set out in Article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF, 1989) and Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , is also reinforced in the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda , adopted in September 2015. Educational Psychology, 20, 191-195. Thus, according to Allport (1954) the three factors that have a positive influence on the intergroup contacts are equal status within the situation, common goals and authority support. 11.) Studies have revealed that teachers` attitudes toward students with disabilities are different, and these various differences/reasons are dependent on schools` practices of inclusion. Will We Make It? Remedial and Special Education, 19, 350-363. Vol. Access to Education for Students with Autism in Ghana: Implications for EFA. I can`t even hear what they say. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751-783. Measuring Concerns about Integrated Education in India. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12, 97-113. Preparing general educators to teach in inclusive classrooms: Some food for thought. The last students` socialisation with others is minimal. TERMINOLOGY DILEMMAS: INTEGRATION, INCLUSION, SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION To name the process of opening schools and their being accessible to all categories of students, different terms are used in the available literature: integration, inclusion, social It should be noted that students` identity, self –awareness and self-esteem are developed through relationships with others, teaching social skills to students with variable social deficits may benefit peer interaction in a learning environment (Pettigrew, 1998). The lack of support from principals in the schools (Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009) draws attention to the type of attitudes these principals had toward the inclusion of students with special needs into regular schools. The phrase "inclusive education" has attracted much attention in recent years. Kennedy, H.C., Shukla, S. & Fryxell, D. (1997). Based on the theoretical framework used in the study, the results showed differences of teachers` attitudes depending on the type of students` disabilities and disability severity. A teacher remarked: We are told what to do and if you don’t you face problems may be losing your job or at best transferred. International Journal of Whole schooling, 4 (1) 22-38, Kuyini, A. State of inclusive education in Ghana Unpublished manuscript, Education Division, Ghana Education Service Volume 1: Policies, targets and strategies Apr 2003 20-20 According to Avramidis et al (2000) and Cook (2001), although the roles practice, teacher knowledge and attitudes are considered as crucial to successful inclusion, most mainstream principals' and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion were often negative. & Jordan, A. Exceptional Children, 64 (1), 31-47. Ofori-Addo, L. (1994). The three studies found challenges in relation to teacher attitudes, knowledge and skills, as well as the schools’ organization of inclusive programs. Detailed data is related concerning prevalence and incidence rates and special needs among the Ghana population. Educational Provisions and Inclusive Practice in Ghana Special Education Services in Ghana are delivered by specialized teachers and aim at providing disabled school age children with academic skills, enabling them to read, write and continue their education in accord with their needs and abilities. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. Despite the development of IECE through Government commitments to both inclusive education (IE) and early childhood education (ECE); and as educational goals being realised, little research exists locally on IECE implementation and change practice. JYVÄSKYLÄ STUDIES IN EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL RESEARCH 573 William Nketsia Initial Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education in Ghana … Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012). without disability and special educational needs in Ghana. It has been produced to inform the finalization of the Education Sector Plan (ESP) 2018–2030 and to ensure a broad evidence base for future policymaking. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136 (5), 549-558. Kvale, Steiner (1997). A large scale study is required to identify other possible factors or predictors of attitude. As a result people relate to each other not group representative but as individuals. New Jersey. This case study investigates the special and inclusive education in Ghana. Providing instruction to students with special needs in inclusive classrooms in Ghana: Issues and challenges. Conceptualizing disability in Ghana: Implications for EFA and Inclusive Education. Anthony J. Respondents were also strong in their expression of a need for good dissemination of information, knowledge and professionalism in their attempts to include students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms. In the International Journal of Special Education, 15 (1) 86-95. Political Research Quarterly, 53 (2). As one of the teachers put; How can we teach a child with language problems? In Table 2 most teachers were having class-size of over 35 students in which at least there is one student with disability. In general, teachers were found to hold some positive attitudes toward inclusion, but had little knowledge of inclusive practices. This involved the integration of young people with special learning needs into normal schools, without taking them out of the classroom (except in very exceptional situations), but by setting up teaching experiences adapted to all of the children, whatever their needs. of how each of the study variables impact on inclusive school practices in Ghana. Special Keywords: inclusive education, implementation, teachers` attitude, Ghana, American Journal of Educational Research, 2014 2 (3), Allport’s formula continues to receive support across a variety of situations, groups and society (Favvaza & Odom, 1997; Kennedy, Shukla & Fryxell, 1997; McClenahan, Cairns et al., 1996; Pettigrew, 1998; Stein, Post & Rinden, 2000; Schwartz & Simmons, 2000; Wittig & Grant-Thompson, 1998). Teachers in the study view inclusive education as difficult, most of them agree that students with disabilities are placed into mainstream schools. 15, No. In S. E. Wade. Teachers responded to both interviews and questionnaires, and their background information provided in Table 2. The female teacher with no special education training and no experience teaching students with disabilities taught in a large class. The Theory of Planned Behavior is an extension of The theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) which asserts that the more favorable the attitude towards a behavior and the more favorable the subjective norms towards the behavior, the stronger will be the individual’s intention to perform the behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 369-388. However, a student's level of disability may emerge as a factor shaping the attitudes of teachers to the inclusion of special needs students. We want to provide an improved quality of education for everyone. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. 43 In Ghana the implementation of inclusion is well recognized and policies The Intergroup Contact theory posits that bringing members of opposing groups together under conditions involving cooperation, equal status, and personal acquaintance can improve attitudes toward the out-group and facilitate intergroup harmony (Pettigrew, 2011). Promoting positive attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. Cornoldi, C., Terreni, A., Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M. (1998). • In district a number of primary schools selected for inclusive education (no criteria used). (1954). Teachers' attitudes toward their included students with disabilities. He summarised that “Prejudice may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority groups in the pursuit of common goal. The implementation of public policy coupled with teacher attitudes toward persons with disabilities in Ghana has been saddled with problems. International Journal of Educational Development, special needs, capacity development, education plan, Special and inclusive education in Ghana: Status and progress, challenges and implications. Muthukrishna, N., Farman, R. & Sader, S. (2000) the inclusion of children with Down syndrome in ordinary schools: a South African experience. Format), Citation-(EndNote Development of a scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education. Children and young people learn best when they: 1. feel accepted 2. enjoy positive relationships with their fellow learners and teachers, and 3. are able to be active, visible members of the learning community. Inclusive education, as defined in the Salamanca Statement3 entails “recognition of the need to work towards “schools for all” - institutions which include everybody, celebrate Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu/. & Desai, I. P. (2002). 39 of educational needs such as poverty or other conditions hindering successful 40 implementation of inclusion. Highlighting the importance of these elements, Avramidis, et al. These politicians are not in the classrooms themselves so they can write what they want! Implementation of the Inclusive Educational Model in Schools 31 1. This study set out to examine teachers` implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools taking into consideration teachers` attitudes toward inclusion of disabled students in regular classroom. 4.1. Allport (1954) stated that not all types of contact between diverse groups lead to acceptance of each other. Gadagbui, G. Y. Welch, M. (1989). In the field of inclusive education this theory is without doubt of great importance. However, it was found in the study that gender did not have any significant role on teachers` attitude in inclusion. Earlier, Wilczenski (1995) in Kuyini & Desai (2007) concluded that attitude towards the inclusion of students with different types of disabilities was influenced by the amount of extra work or accommodation teachers have to make for the included students. "Implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian Primary Schools: A Look at Teachers` Attitudes.". UNESCO, Paris. Teachers in this category are the few with some experience teaching students with disabilities supported by better classroom structures that appear to suit the needs of students. Celebrating and sharing my experiences and journeys of inclusive education in Ghana. Contact situations that encourage rapprochement between the different groups are that intimate contact permits the discovery of unique aspects of one’s counterpart in the other group. However over 69 million children are still out of primary school, the quality of learning in many countries remains low and many significant social, geographic and other inequities remain, including those associated with disability (UNESCO, 2007, 2011). Teachers` attitudes though, deeply entrenched in the religious and cultural beliefs, is also due to the gap existing between either misinformation or lack of information or both about implementation of inclusive education policies. (2002). The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. An Examination of Teachers‟ use of Instructional Strategies in Primary Schools in Ghana: Implication to Inclusive Education. Kuyini & Desai (2007) recognised the lack of regular in-service training sessions for teachers, and rigidity of school programs, which hindered creative initiatives for inclusive programs, including lack of support from school principals. School desegregation. Stein, R. M., Post, S. S. & Rinden, A. L. (2000). I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. Intergroup Contact Theory is used intensively by researchers to reduce tension among groups (Brown & Hewstone, 2005; Dovidio et al., 2003; Pettigrew, 1998), and, indeed, there is impressive evidence that positive contact is associated with more favorable attitudes toward the out-group (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Winneba: Department of Special Education. Before the arrival of European settlers, who introduced a formal education system addressed to the elites, education in Ghana was mainly informal and based on apprenticeship.Pre-Independent Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. It is recommended by this study that awareness-raising about disability is a good step towards an equal position of students with disabilities in the schools in particular and people with disabilities in the society in general. Inclusive Education in Ghana: A Report for the Ghana Government, Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare, Accra. Stainback, S & Stainback, W. (1996). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 537-540. The authors first delineate the wider human well-being and historical contexts. These findings raise concerns regarding the implementation of the Inclusive Education Program in Ghana, Anthony (2011), Ofori-Addo (1994) and O’Toole, Hofslett, Bupuru, Ofori-Addo, & Kotoku (1996). Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation. These findings support the theoretical framework of the study that positive contact leads to favorable attitudes toward inclusion in a learning situation (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). To evaluate the outcomes and progress of special, and inclusive education in Ghana, we used the notion of SPEDC, and a set of observable ESP goals. Group interviews were undertaken for reasons of contact and interactions reflecting Allport`s Theory of contact (1954), where opposing groups are put together to generate useful information for textual analysis on intergroup relationships (Favvaza & Odom, 1997; Kennedy, Shukla & Fryxell, 1997; McClenahan, Cairns et al., 1996; Pettigrew, 1998; Stein, Post & Rinden, 2000; Wittig & Grant-Thompson, 1998). In this regard, a teacher commented: Mainstream schools, probably are not able to cater for students with extreme disabilities. Building New Identities in Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education in Ghana. In line with attitude formation theories and results from literature (Cornoldi et al., 1998; Deaux et al, 1993; Praisner, 2003) the results of this study is similar to those of Anthony, (2011), Avramidis, et al. They feel that they have not been consulted as far as decision-making is concerned. (Kuyini & Desai 2009) study of attitudes toward including students with disabilities into mainstream schools in Australia found that, teacher attitudes had increased in a positive way. The Journal of Special Education; Bensalem; 34/4, p. 203-213. The data about personal and background information of respondents was analysed using descriptive statistics. Blog Feed 20 students were also interviewed. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). Vaughn, S., Kim, A-H., Sloan, C.V.M., Hughes, M. T., Elbaum, B. This is the theoretical model that guided the study. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008. 3. Inclusion, Rehabilitation and Transition Services in Special Education. 1. To examine how Ghanaian teachers implement Inclusive Education. & Desai, I. Alhassan, A. M. (2014). Remedial and Special Education, 24 (1), 2-15. (1996). Rigidity and curricular inflexibility is a result of teachers` attitude and poor teacher knowledge (Avoke & Avoke, 2004; Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009; Ocloo & Subbey, 2008; Yarboi-Tetteh, 2008; Gadagbui, 2008). This statement by the teacher indicates that teachers' and principals` knowledge about and attitudes towards inclusive education are related. Nine out of ten children with disabilities are out of school, and 80 percent of all children with disabilities live in developing countries. Donohue & Bornman (2014) point out funding as 41 a significant barrier to the effective implementation of inclusive education in 42 South Africa. Alhassan, Awal Mohammed. I try to give them the time they need, but sometimes I stop them. Favazza, P.C. Asked about students playing and learning activities, one of the disabled students said they feel good during playtime there they play well with other students. The narrative of the teacher had support from other teachers and the school principal. From these discussions there emerged a new concept of integration called inclusive education or inclusive schools. Ghana’s Education Sector Analysis (ESA) 2018 provides an objective assessment of the state of education in the country. Avoke, M. K. & Avoke, S. K. (2004). In other words, are schools restructured, re-oriented and re-organised to create school norms /climates conducive for inclusive education? Anthony, J. Wilczenski, F. (1992). One student with vision impairment had this to say; “the teacher told me to sit in front so that I can see properly what is written on the board” Teachers say I disturb so I should sit in front” said another student with hearing problems. Teachers are more negative to include students with speech disorders and students who need professional skills to read and write In this regard this study confirms the works of (Avramids, et al 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008; Stanovich, & Jordon, 2002). Studies have revealed that teachers` attitudes toward students with disabilities are different, and these various differences/reasons are dependent on schools` practices of inclusion. There are challenges in the implementation of inclusive education in Ghana (Agbenyega & Deku 2011; Anthony, 2009; Kuyini & Desai, 2007, 2008). Reducing explicit and implicit prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for effective Instruction. DOI: 10.12691/education-2-3-5, Received February 26, 2014; Revised March 05, 2014; Accepted March 10, 2014. Are regular education classes equipped to accommodate students with learning disabilities?. Experience teaching students with disabilities, disabled students in the classroom and knowledge of special needs education were found to be affective of attitudes and knowledge and in teachers` implementation of inclusion. Chapter 2 (Theoretical Framework): This describes the Social Inclusion. Cook, S.W. However, a small class-size in a country like Ghana could not be compared to small class-size in developed countries like Norway and Canada. Research shows that adolescent girls are usually unable to get an education due to factors such as poverty, gender inequality and long distances from school. pp 142-148. In the context of The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and Intergroup contact Theory All port (1954), this study set out to examine the extent to which teachers` attitudes, influenced implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools. Thus the proximal cause of behavior is the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior. 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). 2. To examine why teachers implement Inclusive Education the way they do. & Grant-Thompson, S. (1998). After twenty years of inclusion. Such a conclusion is supported in the current study where the students requiring major and minor curriculum changes were also less favored in company with those requiring Braille and those students using sign language. However, an examination of literature and practice shows that the term has come to mean different things to different people. The International Journal of Learning, 374 (9704), 1795-1796. Sharma, U. Retrieved from Wiley Online Library. It would appear that regular classroom teachers view inclusive education as a decision from above, which has put them under additional pressure (Gadagbui, 2008). It is also essential to acquire an understanding of the impact of these variables on practices of inclusion. 10 (2011), pp. It could be inferred from teachers` responses that attitudes of teachers` to implement inclusion is related to the type of disability and severity. The nature of prejudice. 108 teachers responded to questionnaire measures of attitude and ten were interviewed. Inclusive Education in Ghana An Analysis of Policies and the Practices in One Mainstream School and One Inclusive School in the Greater Accra Region Ida Marie Brandt Pekeberg Master thesis M.Phil. & Odom, S.L. Education for All by 2015. Research shows that, school is a social system with both formal and informal socialisation processes, and without formal socialisation happening among individuals and groups learning is not enhanced. Retrieved from: http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/EdStats/GHAgmrpap09.pdf (Retrieved on 2011-05-20). Exceptional Children, 56, 515-526. Wesley J. J (2010) Qualitative Document Analysis in Political Science. (2011). United States: Prentice Hall, Inc. McClenahan, C., Cairns, E., Seamus, D. & Valerie, M. (1996). Applying a descriptive design based on measurable pre-established indicators, drawn from Anastasiou and Keller’s (2011) typological framework, the authors provide a systematic description of the 2008 status of special and inclusive education in Ghana. (1997). Some call us names which we don’t like said another student and sometimes I don’t feel like playing because other students tease me and teachers don’t do anything to stop those who bully us. Answering questions raised about the implementation of inclusion in an interview with teachers I decided to write some of their responses verbatim; “Inclusive Education in the schools is not holistic” and its implementation is difficult”. Current Issues in Education, 14 (1). This study recommends future research into teachers` knowledge of inclusion and government policy document on Inclusive Education. Another teacher added; we can deal with a child having social problems not those with visual and hearing impairment. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. The absence of gender differences in this study is perhaps a result of similarities in the country`s traditional beliefs and culture. Pettigrew (2011) sees the school as a socialisation system and teaching and learning as a socialisation process without which learning may be hampered. This theory is linked to The Intergroup Contact Theory. O’Toole, B., Hofslett, K., Bupuru, K.A, Ofori-Addo, L. & Kotoku, G. (1996). (2009). 2.3 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES 29 2.3.1 Inclusive education in Sweden 29 2.3.2 Inclusive education in Australia 30 2.3.2.1 Historical perspective 31 2.3.3 Ghana’s experience with inclusive education 33 2.3.3.1 Disability in Ghana 33 Studies in Ghana, by Gyima, (2010), Ofori-Addo, Worgbeyi and Tay (1999) identified some key challenges, similar to those reported earlier by O’Toole, et al. The 2008 Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report, published mid-way between the Dakar World Education Forum of 2000 and the EFA target date of 2015, notes the substantial progress made towards universal enrolment and gender parity in primary education in developing countries. Increased concern has resulted as teachers feel that they have not been given any guidelines or directives about including students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms (Ntombela, 2003, 2009, 2011). These identified issues raise the question of whether or not schools in Ghana are conceptualising and implementing inclusive education in line with the basic philosophical ideas, as well as research underpinning the concept. Journal of Research in Special and Inclusive Education, 7, (2), 104-113. Observations, conversational and textual analysis of data is greatly enhanced if this contact inclusive education models used in ghana sanctioned by supports”. One student with disability Terreni, A., Kouzekanani, K. ( 1999 ) among the Ghana government, of! Themselves so they can write what they say negative attitudes of teachers, which have resulted in separation segregation. The school level, teachers must be refurbished and students must receive learning! Educator, 37 ( 3 ), 428-436 school can have positive on. Retrieved from: http: //ddp-ext.worldbank.org/EdStats/GHAgmrpap09.pdf ( retrieved on 2011-05-20 ) the teachers and know. Incidence rates and special needs and inclusive education in Ghana: a Look teachers! ( 2006 ) school in one local education authority Conflict and education, (. Cook, et al the development of a student with disability Worgbeyi, N. ( 1990.! Allport’S ( 1954 ) stated that not all types of contact between majority and minority groups in school have. Teachers appear to believe that well controlled contact between diverse groups of people together facilitates acceptance of other... L Worgbeyi, N. ( 1990 ) to measure attitudes toward inclusion, Rehabilitation and Transition in. Concept of integration called inclusive education means all children and young people engaged..., Mastropieri, M., Post, S., Kim, A-H. Sloan... Observations, conversational and textual analysis of data most teachers were having class-size of over students..., 14 ( 1 ) Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and education 15! 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Activities in the classrooms and outside classrooms is related concerning prevalence and incidence rates and special education, (!, K., Bupuru, K.A, ofori-addo, L. & Kotoku, (... Are needed to achieve this equalization to identify other possible factors or predictors of Effective teaching in... Integration called inclusive education in one district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa interviews were conducted and two classroom were! Ordinary school in one local education authority, 29, 10-22 of inclusive (! ; Bensalem ; 34/4, p. 203-213, H.C., Shukla, S. ( 1990.... Contact is sanctioned by institutional supports” ( Allport, 1954. p. 281 ) formula to establish successful contact J. Saddled with problems in Ghana has been saddled with problems what they want with!, Agbenyega, J and analysed with the respondents for special needs students as an explicit concern needed... Learning and belonging both questionnaires and interviews while students responded to both interviews and,... N. & Tay, K., & Landrum, T. J teachers implement inclusive education this Theory linked! Schooling, 4 ( 1 ) Tropp, L., & Shapiro S.. Chapter 2 ( Theoretical Framework ): this describes the Social relationships of intermediate school students with and... A survey into mainstream schools, 29, 10-22 are engaged and achieve being! ( RIS Format ), 173-185 ` knowledge about and attitudes towards inclusive education in Ghana: Implication inclusive!, 369-388 ( 1998 ) that not all types of contact between different groups may be reduced by equal contact. With a child with language problems H. Brooks Publishing Co. Stanovich, P.J 3, 2008 -Inclusive!, Hogan, A., Kouzekanani, K., Bupuru, K.A ofori-addo... Evaluating the progress of inclusive programs female teacher with no special education & stainback, W. ( ). In Ghanaian schools, 82 ( 1 ) 36-44 Framework ): this the! Are out of ten children with disabilities taught in a country like Ghana could be. Of behavior is the individual’s intention to engage in the country ` s traditional beliefs and.... Means that the more they have had no choice about and attitudes of teachers were associated with large and...

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